Here are two sample movies made from time-lapse images of mouse neural stem cells. The first movie shows an example of the type of clones we are able to analyze:
This next movie shows the “resegmentation” process in action. Using the lineage tree information, the underlying segmentation is updated in each subsequent frame. The updated segmentation is next used to refine the tracking results, and the process repeats. Note that the vast majority of the errors in the automated analysis are corrected automatically (yellow boxes) – just a few user-edits (red boxes) are required to correct the remaining mistakes:
M. Winter, M. Liu, D. Monteleone, J. Melunis, U. Hershberg, S. K. Goderie, S. Temple, and A. R. Cohen, Computational Image Analysis Reveals Intrinsic Multigenerational Differences Between Anterior and Posterior Cerebral Cortex Neural Progenitor Cells, Stem Cell Reports, 2015, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344906.
Here is an example of a movie created using our “5-D” version of LEVER:
This is captured on a 3-D microscope (confocal fluorescence) with time-lapse and multi-channel imaging.
E. Wait, M. Winter, C. Bjornsson, E. Kokovay, Y. Wang, S. Goderie, S. Temple and A. R. Cohen, Visualization and Correction of Automated Segmentation, Tracking and Lineaging from 5-D Stem Cell Image Sequences. BMC Bioinformatics, 15:328. October 3, 2014, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25281197.